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Dr. Virginia Apgar

This Month in Medical History – No need to study for Dr. Apgar’s test

by Sean Ruck , Contributing Editor
From the June 2016 issue of DOTmed HealthCare Business News magazine

Virginia Apgar was born on June 7, 1909, in Westfield, New Jersey. She was the youngest child of three in a middle-class family. Although her father was a businessman, he encouraged his children to play music, and Apgar picked up the violin at an early age. Her father also had substantial curiosity about the world and maintained a basement science lab where he conducted a variety of experiments that ranged from work with electricity and radio waves to amateur astronomy and building his own telescope. This early exposure to science and the positive reinforcement of pursuing answers and following scientific methods may have influenced Apgar’s career path in later life.

After graduating from Mount Holyoke College with a bachelor’s at the age of 20, she went on to the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University in New York City the following year. While she had worked a variety of jobs to put herself through college at Columbia, that became untenable when the Great Depression struck. Apgar managed to borrow money to stay in school and she graduated fourth in her class in 1933 with a medical degree, but substantial debt. She considered working as a surgeon, but it was readily apparent that the Great Depression had upended the profession, leaving many surgeons struggling to find work.

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For a female surgeon at that time, work would be even rarer. With that consideration, she made the decision to pursue a career in anesthesiology. Contrary to today’s turf wars, anesthesia was usually administered by nurses in the early 1900s, but doctors were gradually moving into the field. Two years after graduating from medical school, Apgar commenced a two-year anesthesiology program. Her career decision paid off when she was hired by Columbia University to head their anesthesia division.

Although the job was obtained, the support and respect of her fellow doctors was longer in coming. Apgar battled to be treated as an equal and eventually amassed enough power, and grew her department enough, that she was able to increase funding for it and pay for department staff by threatening to quit if the school did not meet her funding requests. Although her star was on the rise, she still faced sexism. When Columbia created a separate department for training and research around anesthesia, a male doctor was offered the position. However, Apgar was named a full professor, making her the first female full professor at Columbia.

It was in her role as professor that Apgar pursued research that would make her a household name. She combined her substantial knowledge about anesthesia with research into childbirth. Her studies led her to realize newborns were being overlooked, and that serious health issues which might be managed if caught soon enough after birth, would sometimes lead to death. Knowing that birth resulted in at least two patients needing care, and realizing the doctor was often outnumbered by patients during the event, Apgar created a simple, five-part test to allow the harried physician the opportunity to quickly assess, or score, the baby’s condition.
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